eISSN: 2345-2781  
J Renal Inj Prev. 2015;4(4).
doi: 10.12861/jrip.2015.26
PMID: 26693499
PMCID: PMC4685982

Original Article

Congenital anomalies of kidney and upper urinary tract in children with congenital hypothyroidism; a case-control study

Parsa Yousefichaijan 1, Fatemeh Dorreh 2, Mohammad Rafeie 3, Mojtaba Sharafkhah 4 * , Fatemeh Safi 5

1 Department of Pediatric Nephrology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
4 Students Research Committee, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
5 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
6 Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
7 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
*Corresponding author: Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Email: sharafkhah@arakmu.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may be significantly associated with congenital malformations. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between renal and urinary tract anomalies and CH. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the renal and upper urinary tract anomalies in children with and without primary CH (PCH).

Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 children aged 3 months to 1 year, referring to Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak, Iran. One hundred children with PCH, as the case group, and 100 children without CH, as the control group, were selected. For all children, ultrasonography and other diagnostic measures (if necessary) were performed to evaluate renal and upper urinary tract anomalies (ureter and bladder). Results: The frequency of renal and upper urinary tract anomalies among 43 children with primary CH, with 83 cases (72.8%), was significantly higher than the frequency of anomalies among the 19 children in the control group, with 31 cases (27.1%) (OR = 3; CI 95%: 1.6-5.4; P = 0.001). Among the anomalies studied, only the differences in frequency of uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) (OR = 6; CI 95%: 1.3-28; P = 0.018) and hydronephrosis (OR = 22; CI 95%: 5-95; P = 0.001) was significant between the two groups.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that PCH is significantly associated with the frequency of congenital anomalies of the kidneys and upper urinary tracts. However, further studies are recommended to determine the necessity of conducting screening programs for anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract in children with CH at birth.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Better understanding of anomalies associated with the congenital hypothyroidism (CH) could be a critical step towards the identification of the etiology of CH. Since there is little evidence on the relationship between renal and urinary tract anomalies and CH, we evaluated this relationship and we have shown significantly associated of primary CH and congenital anomalies of kidney and upper urinary tract.

Please cite this paper as: Yousefichaijan P, Dorreh F, Rafeie M, Sharafkhah M, Safi F, Amiri M, et al. Congenital anomalies of kidney and upper urinary tract in children with congenital hypothyroidism; a case-control study. J Renal Inj Prev. 2015;4(4):120-126. DOI: 10.12861/jrip.2015.26

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