eISSN: 2345-2781  



First published online: 09 Aug 2016
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2016;5(4):193-199.
doi: 10.15171/jrip.2016.41
PMID: 27689122
PMCID: PMC5039988

Original Article

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with overactive bladder; a case-control study
 

Parsa Yousefichaijan 1, Mojtaba Sharafkhah 2 * , Mohammad Rafiei 3, Bahman Salehi 4

1 Department of Pediatrics, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
2 Students Research Committee, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
4 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran
*Corresponding author: Mojtaba Sharafkhah, Email: dr.sharafkhah@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic diseases.

Objectives: To investigate ADHD in children with overactive bladder.

Patients and Methods: A number of 92 children with overactive bladder and 92 healthy children without overactive bladder (age range of both groups 5 to 12 years old) were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. Participants were selected from children who had referred to a pediatric clinic in Arak city, Iran. ADHD types (inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, and mixed) were diagnosed by Conner’s Parent Rating Scale and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR (DSM-IV-TR) criteria. Data were analyzed by chi-square and t tests.

Results: In both groups, 51 children (27.7%) had ADHD. The prevalence of ADHD in the case group (33 cases, 35.9%) was significantly higher than the control group (18 cases, 19.6%) (P = 0.021). Inattentive ADHD was observed in 22 participants (23.9%) of the case group and nine participants of the control group (9.7%) (P = 0.047). Despite this significant difference, three (3.2%) and four (4.3%) children were affected by hyperactive-impulsive ADHD (P = 0.73), and eight (8.6%) and five (5.4%) children were affected by mixed ADHD (P = 0.42) in the case and control groups, respectively.

Conclusion: ADHD bladder is significantly more common in children with overactive bladder than healthy children. The observed correlation between ADHD and overactive bladder makes psychological counseling mandatory in children with overactive bladder.

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is more prevalent in some chronic diseases. Aside from the relationship between nocturnal enuresis and ADHD, there may be an association between overactive bladder and ADHD. Hence, this study investigated the prevalence of ADHD in children with overactive bladder.

Please cite this paper as: Yousefichaijan P, Sharafkhah M, Rafiei M, Salehi B. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children with overactive bladder; a case-control study. J Renal Inj Prev. 2016;5(4):193-199. DOI: 10.15171/jrip.2016.41

 
 
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