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Submitted: 12 Mar 2020
Accepted: 10 May 2020
ePublished: 30 May 2020
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2021;10(2): e12.
doi: 10.34172/jrip.2021.12
  Abstract View: 43
  PDF Download: 19

Original

Exposure of cigarette smoke aggravates noise induced kidney damage

Jamshid Alizadeh 1 ORCID logo, Zohre Jaffarzadeh 1 ORCID logo, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali 2 ORCID logo, Massumeh Ahmadizadeh 1,3 * ORCID logo

1 Department of Occupational Health, Engineering, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Physiology Research Center, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
*Corresponding author: Prof. Massumeh Ahmadizadeh, Ph.D, Email: Ahmadizadeh_m@ajums.ac.ir

Abstract

Introduction: Noise is defined as an interfering and unwanted sound. Exposure to noise induces health problems in humans and animals. Cigarette smoke (CS) has also been known to cause serious problems in health hazard and leads to many kinds of diseases. However, the effects of these agents on the kidney are poorly studied.

Objectives: The current study purposes to investigate the impact of noise and/or CS on rat’s kidney

Materials and Methods: Four groups of six Wistar adult male rats were used. They randomly were divided into four groups of rats. The first group was used as control. The second group was exposed to noise. The third group was exposed to cigarette smoking and the fourth group was exposed to both noise and CS. The experiments were repeated for two weeks (five days per week). Twenty-four hours after last exposure, the animals were killed by sodium pentobarbital overdose. Renal function was evaluated by the determination of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels. Oxidative stress was estimated by glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays.

Results: The concentrations of BUN and creatinine remarkably raised (P ≤ 0.05) in all groups compared to those in control rats. However, elevations of the biochemical tests were more predominant in rats exposed to combined noise and CS. Elevation of MDA was observed in all exposed rats, while it was more pronounced in the animals exposed to the combined noise and CS when compared to control, CS or noise exposure rats alone. The level of GSH decreased in all exposed groups. It was more obvious in rats exposed to the combined noise and CS when compared to those of control and exposure rats to noise or CS separately.

Conclusion: Exposure to noise or CS impaired renal function. Generation of oxidative stress at least in part may be responsible for their nephrotoxicity. Our findings demonstrated CS aggravated noise induced impairment of renal function.

Keywords: Noise, Cigarette smoking, GSH, Malondialdehyde, Creatinine
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