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Submitted: 04 Jul 2020
Accepted: 22 Sep 2020
ePublished: 09 Oct 2020
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2021;10(3): e21.
doi: 10.34172/jrip.2021.21
  Abstract View: 59
  PDF Download: 51

Original

Effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory and apoptotic factors against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Ali Valibeik 1,2,3 ORCID logo, Negar Naderi 2,3 ORCID logo, Abdolhakim Amini 3 ORCID logo, Niloufar Tavakoli Dastjerd 4 ORCID logo, Sobhan Rahimi Monfared 3 ORCID logo, Leila Jafaripour 5 ORCID logo, Saeed Veiskarami 6 ORCID logo, Mehdi Birjandi 7 ORCID logo, Alireza Naderi Sohi 8 ORCID logo, Hassan Ahmadvand 2,9 * ORCID logo

1 Student Research Committee, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
2 Hepatitis Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
3 Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
4 Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran
5 Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran
6 Lorestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Department of Animal Science, Khorramabad, Iran
7 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Health and Nutrition, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
8 Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran, Iran
9 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran
*Corresponding author: Hassan Ahmadvand; Email: hassan_a46@yahoo.com

Abstract

Introduction: Camphor is a natural antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Nephrotoxicity is the most important side effect of gentamicin (GEM) administration. Therefore, investigating the effect of natural antioxidants can resolve this complication.

Objectives: We aimed to assay the effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX]) and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], nuclear factor kappa-B [NF-κB], interleukine-6 [IL-6]), and apoptotic indices (BCL2-associated X protein [Bax], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], caspase-3)], against GEM-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Materials and Methods: Thirty adult male Wistar rats were allocated to five groups. Positive control and treatment groups were given GEM to induce nephrotoxicity. Animal treatment groups were treated with camphor in olive oil for 12 days. Renal biopsies, serum, extraction of renal tissue and urine of rats were taken after the twelfth day. Biopsies were examined for structural changes using a light microscope, moreover, apoptosis, desired biochemical and inflammatory factors, were investigated by suitable methods.

Results: Camphor had no effect on biochemical factors, including malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), urea, creatinine and urine protein. However, it reduced the gene expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, IL-6, Bax, and caspase-3 and increased the gene expression of GPX and CAT and Bcl-2. Moreover, camphor improved kidney histopathological changes in the camphor groups in comparison with the GEM group.

Conclusion: Camphor can be useful in the attenuation of GEM-induced nephrotoxicity based on expression levels of examined enzymes and factors and improving kidney histopathological changes.


Keywords: Gentamicin, Nephrotoxicity, Camphor, Biochemical factors, Antioxidant enzymes, Apoptotic factors

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

It has been proposed that nephrotoxicity is the most important side effect of gentamicin use, in addition, camphor is a natural antioxidant. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory and apoptotic factors against gentamicin- induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Camphor can be useful in the attenuation of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. However, more studies with more experimental groups and longer follow-up are necessary to confirm the results of this study.

Please cite this paper as: Valibeik A, Naderi N, Amini A, Tavakoli Dastjerd N, Rahimi Monfared S, Jafaripour L, Veiskarami S, Birjandi M, Naderi Sohi A, Ahmadvand H. Effect of camphor on biochemical factors and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory and apoptotic factors against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats . J Renal Inj Prev. 2021; 10(3): e21. doi: 10.34172/jrip.2021.21.

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