Submitted: 20 Mar 2020
Accepted: 28 Mar 2020
ePublished: 30 Mar 2020
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2020;9(2): e19.
doi: 10.34172/jrip.2020.19
  Abstract View: 1824
  PDF Download: 1308


COVID-19 interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the kinin system; looking at a potential treatment

Ramin Tolouian 1 ORCID logo, Sepideh Zununi Vahed 2 ORCID logo, Shahram Ghiyasvand 2, Audrey Tolouian 3 ORCID logo, Mohammadreza Ardalan 2 * ORCID logo

1 Division of Nephrology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA
2 Kidney Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
3 School of Nursing, The University of Texas at El Paso, TX, USA
*Corresponding author: Prof. Mohammadreza Ardalan, Email; Ardalan34@yahoo.com, Ardalanm@tbzmed.ac.ir


The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly expanding infection around the world. The world Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 announced the Coronavirus pandemic. This infection causes many deaths on daily basis. Therapeutic options are currently limited. It is revealed that COVID-19 binds to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter the host cells. One of the activities of ACE2 is hydrolyzing the active bradykinin metabolite [des-Arg973] BK (DABK). A decreased activity or reducing expression of ACE2 by the virus impairs the inactivation of DABK. This enhances its signaling through the bradykinin B1 receptor (BKB1R) and could lead to fluid extravasation and leukocyte recruitment to the lung. Targeting the bradykinin system by either blocking the bradykinin production or blocking bradykinin receptors may open a new potential therapeutic window for the treatment of COVID-19 induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) particularly before patients enter the irreversible stages.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV, Bradykinin, Lung injury, ACE2, Coronavirus, Acute respiratory distress syndrome, Angiotensin converting enzyme2

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

It is revealed that Covid-19 binds to human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter the host cells.

Please cite this paper as: Tolouian R, Zununi Vahed S, Ghiyasvand S, Tolouian A, Ardalan MR. COVID-19 interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the kinin system; looking at a potential treatment. J Renal Inj Prev. 2020; 9(2): e19. doi: 10.34172/jrip.2020.19.

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