Submitted: 29 Apr 2021
Accepted: 20 May 2021
ePublished: 04 Jul 2021
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2022;11(1): e8-e8.
doi: 10.34172/jrip.2022.08
  Abstract View: 366
  PDF Download: 251


Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urinary tract infections; prevalence and antimicrobial resistance

Raghad Abdulsalam Khaleel 1 ORCID logo, Narjes Alfuraiji 2 ORCID logo, Balsam Waleed Hussain 3, Maadh Fawzi Nassar 4 * ORCID logo, Farnoosh Ebrahimzadeh 5 ORCID logo

1 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Al Iraqia, Baghdad, lraq
2 Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq
3 Department of General Surgery, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq
4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
*Corresponding author: Maadh Fawzi Nassar, Email: Gs58524@student.upm.edu.my


Introduction: The newly-launched strain of the Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, is considered the most emerging bacterium in-hospital infections globally.

Objectives: The current research focused on the prevalence and virulence features of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteria recovered from urinary tract infections (UTIs) cases.

Patients and Methods: A total of 710 urine specimens were taken from hospitalized patients who suffered from UTIs. S. aureus was recovered from urine specimens using the microbial culture. S. aureus antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed toward oxacillin and cefoxitin antimicrobial disk to determine the MRSA strains. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assessed the distribution of antimicrobial resistance encoding genes. S. aureus antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by disk diffusion.

Results: Fifty-five out of 710 (7.7%) urine specimens were positive for the MRSA bacteria. The uppermost antibiotic resistance was obtained against penicillin (100%), ceftaroline (100%), gentamicin (87.2%), erythromycin (76.3%), and ciprofloxacin (69.0%). BlaZ (100%) and tetK (85.4%) had the higher frequency amid examined antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes.

Conclusion: The high prevalence of MRSA isolates harboring antimicrobial resistance-encoding genes in the UTIs suggests that diseases caused by them need more expansion healthcare monitoring with essential demand for novel antimicrobials.

Keywords: Methicillin-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus, Urinary tract infections, Antimicrobial resistance

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

The role of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has rarely been assessed in urinary tract infections (UTIs). Considering the high pathogenicity of the MRSA bacteria and their high antibiotic resistance attitude toward commonly-used antibiotic agents, it should be determined as an emerging uropathogen. Findings of the present survey revealed that 7.7% of examined urine samples were positive for MRSA. The majority of strains harbored a high prevalence of resistance toward penicillin, ceftaroline, gentamicin, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin antibiotic agents, which was accompanied by the high distribution of antibiotic resistance genes. As a result, more attention should be paid to an antibiotic prescription.

Please cite this paper as: Khaleel RA, Alfuraiji N, Hussain BW, Nassar MF, Ebrahimzadeh F. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urinary tract infections; prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. J Renal Inj Prev. 2022; 11(1): e08. doi: 10.34172/ jrip.2022.08.

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