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Submitted: 08 Nov 2017
Accepted: 10 Dec 2017
ePublished: 09 Jan 2018
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J Renal Inj Prev. 2018;7(1): 49-52.
doi: 10.15171/jrip.2018.12

Scopus ID: 85042606901
  Abstract View: 1813
  PDF Download: 1143

Case Report

Sequential cerebral salt wasting complicating SIADH in a patient following head trauma

Macaulay Amechi Chukwukadibia Onuigbo 1,2,3 * , Nneoma Agbasi 4, Emeka Joseph Amadi 3, Uchenna Chigozie Okeke 2, Abdul Khan 2

1 Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA
2 Department of Nephrology, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA
3 Department of Hospital Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA
4 North East London NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom
*Corresponding author: Macaulay Amechi Onuigbo, onuigbo.macaulay@mayo.edu

Abstract

Hyponatremia is the most commonly encountered dyselectrolytemia following head trauma. The two main mechanisms responsible for non-iatrogenic hyponatremia are cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is the commonest dyselectrolytemia cause of hyponatremia following traumatic brain injury (TBI) whereas CSW is the most elusive and challenging diagnosis of the causes of hyponatremia from intracranial causes. The need to distinguish between CSW and SIADH is critical because the management of CSW is volume restitution and sodium restoration whereas for SIADH, the management is exact opposite - water restriction. Our recent experience with a 67-year old Caucasian female post-TBI illustrated very interesting observations. To our knowledge, this is the first case of the sequential development of symptomatic hyponatremia from SIADH followed by the development of hyponatremia from CSW in the same patient during the same admission. Furthermore, our case further highlighted the contrarian observation that with a high index of suspicion for CSW and its early diagnosis, volume depletion and hypovolemia from polyuria may not be a distinguishing presenting factor, when contrasted with SIADH.
Keywords: Cerebral salt wasting, Hyponatremia, Syndrome of inappropriate ADH, secretion, Traumatic brain injury, NaCl infusion

Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:

We report a 67-year-old female who presented with progressively symptomatic hyponatremia due to the SIADH secretion complicating TBI and neurosurgical intervention. She responded initially to fluid restriction, 3% NaCl infusion and oral NaCl tablets. Nevertheless, by hospital day 8, she had quickly developed polyuria, dumping over 3 liters of urine in the first 4-6 hours of that morning with rapid recurrence of hyponatremia, again. She was, this time, diagnosed with CSW and was managed differently with 0.9% NaCl volume expansion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of the sequential development of symptomatic hyponatremia from SIADH followed by the development of hyponatremia from CSW in the same patient during the same admission. Furthermore, our case further highlighted the contrarian observation that with a high index of suspicion for CSW and its early diagnosis, volume depletion and hypovolemia from polyuria may not be a distinguishing presenting factor, when contrasted with SIADH.

Please cite this paper as: Onuigbo MAC, Agbasi N, Amadi EJ, Okeke UC, Khan A. Sequential cerebral salt wasting complicating SIADH in a patient following head trauma. J Renal Inj Prev. 2018;7(1):49-52. DOI: 10.15171/jrip.2018.12.

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