Introduction: One of the most important causes of erythropoietin-resistant anemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is increased levels of inflammatory cytokines.Objectives: In this study pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory and anti-cytokine drug, with no significant side effects was used to manage anemia in ESRD patients.
Patients and Methods: Thirty-nine ESRD patients with erythropoietin-resistant anemia were assigned to two groups, the treatment and the control groups. In treatment group, 19 patients received erythropoietin, venofer and pentoxifylline for 6 months.
Patients in control group received erythropoietin and venofer. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), albumin and quantitative C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at the beginning of the study, monthly and at the end of the study.
Results: Hb and Hct were significantly increased in the treatment group (9.33±1.25 g/dL and 28.08±3.88% at baseline;????? but not in the control group. CRP was significantly decreased in the treatment group but no significant change occurred in the control group.
Conclusion: Pentoxifylline is effective in improvement of erythropoietin-resistant anemia in ESRD patients.